Creation vs. Evolution
Some reminders An element consist of one type of atom only. Therefore, elements are the simplest substances that we can use and investigate in chemistry because an element cannot be split into other substances unlike compounds. Each element has identical atoms except for isotopes, different numbers of neutrons – explained later which are physically and chemically identical and each element has its own unique physical and chemical properties. Ever element has its own unique chemical symbol which is used to denote elements in the periodic table, in chemical formulae and chemical equations e. The symbol is a single capital letter upper case e. Cu, Fe, Cl, Br, Li etc. However, why do we have different elements? Is an atom the simplest particle we need to know about to understand chemistry? In order to answer these questions we must look a bit deeper into the fundamental structure of matter, that is everything around you!
How Old Is The Earth?
The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods.
We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate.
This article comes from the Universe Today archive, but was updated with this spiffy video. How old is the Earth? Scientists think that the Earth is billion years dentally, this is.
Mineralogy As a discipline, mineralogy has had close historical ties with geology. Minerals as basic constituents of rocks and ore deposits are obviously an integral aspect of geology. The problems and techniques of mineralogy, however, are distinct in many respects from those of the rest of geology, with the result that mineralogy has grown to be a large, complex discipline in itself. Nepheline greasy light gray , sodalite blue , cancrinite yellow , feldspar white , and ferromagnesian minerals black in an alkalic syenite from Litchfield, Maine, U.
About 3, distinct mineral species are recognized, but relatively few are important in the kinds of rocks that are abundant in the outer part of the Earth. Thus a few minerals such as the feldspars, quartz, and mica are the essential ingredients in granite and its near relatives. Limestones , which are widely distributed on all continents, consist largely of only two minerals, calcite and dolomite. Many rocks have a more complex mineralogy, and in some the mineral particles are so minute that they can be identified only through specialized techniques.
It is possible to identify an individual mineral in a specimen by examining and testing its physical properties.
Changing Views of the History of the Earth
The International History Project Date: Archaeology studies past human behavior through the examination of material remains of previous human societies. These remains include the fossils preserved bones of humans, food remains, the ruins of buildings, and human artifacts—items such as tools, pottery, and jewelry. From their studies, archaeologists attempt to reconstruct past ways of life.
Archaeology is an important field of anthropology, which is the broad study of human culture and biology. Archaeologists concentrate their studies on past societies and changes in those societies over extremely long periods of time.
Radiocarbon dating has transformed our understanding of the past 50, years. Professor Willard Libby produced the first radiocarbon dates in and was later awarded the Nobel Prize for his.
Au do not have isomers. Gold’s most stable isomer is m2 Au with a half-life of 2. No other isomer or isotope of gold has three decay paths. The first synthesis of gold was conducted by Japanese physicist Hantaro Nagaoka , who synthesized gold from mercury in by neutron bombardment. Only the mercury isotope Hg, which occurs with a frequency of 0. Other mercury isotopes are converted when irradiated with slow neutrons into one another, or formed mercury isotopes which beta decay into thallium.
Using fast neutrons , the mercury isotope Hg, which composes 9.
List of bog bodies
Full Answer The key to an age of a substance is the decay-product ratio. The ratio of the original isotope and its decay product determines how many half-lives have occurred since the sample formed. A half-life measures the time it takes for one half of a radio isotope’s atoms to break down into another element. For instance, if an object has 50 percent of its decay product, it has been through one half-life. A popular way to determine the ages of biological substances no more than 50, years old is to measure the decay of carbon into nitrogen This process begins as soon as a living thing dies and is unable to produce more carbon
In this article, an overview is presented of the status of the radiocarbon dating of iron-based materials. Recent advances include simplification in sample preparation and reduction in sample size for accelerator mass spectrometry measurements, and the potential use of rust as a viable source of material for radiocarbon dating.
More extensive evidence, largely ignored or brushed over by most of the agnostic scientific community, is contained in the excellent book In the Beginning by Walter T. More on that later. Let’s first look at: If an animal mates with another animal not of its exact species, the result will be a sterile creature e. If animals of a given species mate and produce an abnormal offspring i. Therefore, how could the macro evolutionary process advance? How could a “mutant” i. It would first have to be fertile itself.
It would have to find a sexually compatible mate who was also fertile during its relatively miniscule life span on the overall evolutionary time scale. Thirdly, their offspring would also have to be fertile and be able to continue the advance. So if single celled animals formed in the primordial soup and they were asexual not have either male or female characteristics, but reproducing by themselves, how would they advance to a hermaphroditic state having both male and female sexual organs and then to the higher orders of animals which almost always have distinct male and female reproductive organs?
All in-between states are sterile. Evolution can only explain asexual or self-fertilizing hermaphroditic reproduction. Yet we have tens of thousands of the higher orders of species with perfectly matched sexually sets of males and females.
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Love-hungry teenagers and archaeologists agree: But while the difficulties of single life may be intractable, the challenge of determining the age of prehistoric artifacts and fossils is greatly aided by measuring certain radioactive isotopes. Until this century, relative dating was the only technique for identifying the age of a truly ancient object. By examining the object’s relation to layers of deposits in the area, and by comparing the object to others found at the site, archaeologists can estimate when the object arrived at the site.
Though still heavily used, relative dating is now augmented by several modern dating techniques. Radiocarbon dating involves determining the age of an ancient fossil or specimen by measuring its carbon content.
Fundamental properties of atoms including atomic number and atomic mass. The atomic number is the number of protons in an atom, and isotopes have the same atomic number but differ in .
Measurement of N, the number of 14 C atoms currently in the sample, allows the calculation of t, the age of the sample, using the equation above. The above calculations make several assumptions, such as that the level of 14 C in the atmosphere has remained constant over time. The calculations involve several steps and include an intermediate value called the “radiocarbon age”, which is the age in “radiocarbon years” of the sample: Radiocarbon ages are still calculated using this half-life, and are known as “Conventional Radiocarbon Age”.
Since the calibration curve IntCal also reports past atmospheric 14 C concentration using this conventional age, any conventional ages calibrated against the IntCal curve will produce a correct calibrated age. When a date is quoted, the reader should be aware that if it is an uncalibrated date a term used for dates given in radiocarbon years it may differ substantially from the best estimate of the actual calendar date, both because it uses the wrong value for the half-life of 14 C, and because no correction calibration has been applied for the historical variation of 14 C in the atmosphere over time.
The different elements of the carbon exchange reservoir vary in how much carbon they store, and in how long it takes for the 14 C generated by cosmic rays to fully mix with them. This affects the ratio of 14 C to 12 C in the different reservoirs, and hence the radiocarbon ages of samples that originated in each reservoir.
How Old is the Earth
Isotope used in dating old objects What your textbook says about dating methods Geological faults and other regions where volcanic activity occurred around the same time that the. These two uranium isotopes decay at different rates. Nothing has leeched into or out of the rock over time, etc. By ken ham et al. What is radiocarbon dating? These differing rates of decay help make uranium-lead dating one of the most reliable methods of radiometric dating because they provide two different decay clocks.
Articles home page Creation vs. Evolution 0. Introduction and table of contents The following is an organized presentation on the creation vs. evolution controversy.
The fountains of the great deep launched rocks and muddy water into space. Consequently, many rocks, assisted by their mutual gravity and surrounding clouds of water vapor that produced aerobraking, merged to become asteroids. Isolated rocks in space are meteoroids. Drag forces caused by water vapor and thrust forces produced by the radiometer effect concentrated most smaller asteroids in what is now the asteroid belt.
Asteroids, also called minor planets, are rocky bodies orbiting the Sun. Ninety percent of them have orbits between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, a region called the asteroid belt. The largest asteroid, Ceres, is almost miles in diameter and has about one-third the volume of all other asteroids combined. Precise orbital details are known for some , asteroids.
Facts About Carbon
Isotopes Commonly used for Radiometric Isotoppes. Scientists use Carbon dating for telling the age of an old object, Isotopes are atoms of the same element, The Carbon Dating of Iron. Isotopes dating old objects For instance, carbon has a half-life of 5, years.
7. Dimension 3 DISCIPLINARY CORE IDEAS—EARTH AND SPACE SCIENCES. E arth and space sciences (ESS) investigate processes that operate on Earth and also address its place in the solar system and the galaxy. Thus ESS involve phenomena that range in scale from the unimaginably large to the invisibly small.
But you may not realise that each square on the periodic table actually represents a family of isotopes — atoms which share the same name and chemical properties, but have different masses. To understand what isotopes are and how we can use them, we need to take a closer look at the interior of an atom. The periodic table of elements. You can think of protons and neutrons as the same kind of particle with one key difference: The electrons, which are much lighter than protons or neutrons, carry the same magnitude of charge as a proton but with the opposite sign, meaning that each atom that has equal numbers of protons and electrons is electrically neutral.
It is the electrons that determine the chemical behaviour of a particular element. The Map of Nuclides contains information about all known isotopes.